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Trade and privacy: Complicated bed fellows? How to achieve data protection-proof free trade agreements

Irion, K.

Speaking notes for a panel debate hosted by MEP Viviane Reding at the European Parliament on 12 October 2016.


Remuneration of authors of books and scientific journals, translators, journalists and visual artists for the use of their works

Europe Economics

Guibault, L.

Salamanca, O.

Final report. A study prepared for the European Commission, DG Communications Networks, Content & Technology

A new EU study looks at the remuneration paid to authors in the print sector in ten EU countries (United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Poland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Hungary and Denmark). The study was conducted to support policy-making in the area of copyright. The Commission is looking for evidence on whether, and to what extent, the differences that exist amongst the Member States' legislative frameworks affect levels of remuneration and the functioning of the internal market.


Communication to a New Public? Three reasons why EU copyright law can do without a 'new public'

Hugenholtz, P.

van Velze, S.

This article critically examines the 'new public' test in EU copyright law, which was developed by the CJEU interpreting the right of communication to the public in cases of retransmission and hyperlinking. As the authors seek to demonstrate, this test is flawed for at least three reasons: historical, conceptual and economic. EU copyright law can do well without a 'new public' test.


Freedom of expression and defamation: A study of the case law of the European Court of Human Rights

McGonagle, T.

Freedom of expression is a fundamental freedom, one of the cornerstones of democracy in Europe, enshrined in various key texts, including the European Convention on Human Rights. But the boundaries between freedom to criticise and damaging a person’s honour or reputation are not always very clear. By defining public insults and defamation, the law can set limits on freedom of expression, which is neither absolute nor boundless. But how far can it go? This study examines the details of the European Court of Human Right’s case law on defamation. It explores a range of substantive and procedural issues that the Court has considered, and clarifies the concept of defamation, positioning it in relation to freedom of expression and public debate. It explains how overly protective defamation laws can have a chilling effect on freedom of expression and public debate, and discusses the proportionality of defamation laws and their application.


International copyright reform in support of open legal information (working paper draft, Sep. 2016)

Guibault, L.

van Eechoud, M.

Paper for Open Data Research Symposium Madrid 2016

This paper analyzes the status of legal information under international and national copyright laws. It argues that the current uncertainties with respect to the copyright status of primary legal materials (legislation, court decisions) and secondary legal materials such as parliamentary records and other official texts relevant to the interpretation of law, constitute a barrier to access and use. The time has come for reform of the international copyright system in WIPO. International law should recognize explicitly that primary and secondary legal materials are public domain and thus not subject to copyright or related rights. This will bring outdated copyright norms across the world up to date with current developments: the trend towards universal recognition of the right to access government information as part of human rights, the UN’s sustainable development goals with respect to access to law, and the rapid growth of open government policies worldwide, supported by the Open Government Partnership (OGP).


Shrinking core? Exploring the differential agenda setting power of traditional and personalized news

Judith Moeller Damian Trilling Natali Helberger Kristina Irion Claes H de Vreese

A shared issue agenda provides democracies with a set of topics that structure the public debate. The advent of personalized news media that use smart algorithms to tailor the news offer to the user challenges the established way of setting the agenda of such a common core of issues. This paper tests the effects of personalized news use on perceived importance of these issues in the common core. In particular we study whether personalized news use leads to a concentration at the top of the issue agenda or to a more diverse issue agenda with a long tail of topics. Based on a cross-sectional survey of a representative population sample (N=1556), we find that personalized news use does not lead to a small common core in which few topics are discussed extensively, yet there is a relationship between personalized news use and a preference for less discussed topics. This is a result of a specific user profile of personalized news users: younger, more educated news users are more interested in topics at the fringes of the common core and also make more use of personalized news offers. The results are discussed in the light of media diversity and recent advances in public sphere research.


Facebook is a new breed of editor: a social editor

Natali Helberger

Facebook’s approach to allowing, censoring or prioritising content that appears in the news feed has recently been the focus of much attention, both media and governmental. Professor Natali Helberger of the Institute for Information Law at the University of Amsterdam argues that we need to seek to understand the new kind of editorial role that Facebook is playing, in order to know how to tackle the questions it raises.


10 Standards for Oversight and Transparency of National Intelligence Services

Eskens, S.

van Daalen, O.

van Eijk, N.

This report aims to enhance the policy debate on surveillance by intelligence services by focusing on two key components: oversight and transparency. Both oversight and transparency are essential to devising checks and balances in a way that respects human rights. By offering this concise list of ten standards, we intend to provide practical guidance for those who seek further input for discussions, policymaking and the review of existing legislation. These standards are based on our analysis and interpretation of relevant jurisprudence, literature and selected policy documents.


Something Completely Different: Europe's Sui Generis Database Right

Hugenholtz, P.

In: The Internet and the Emerging Importance of New Forms of Intellectual Property, S. Frankel and D. Gervais (eds.), Information Law Series, Vol. 37, Kluwer Law International 2016.
This chapter traces the sui generis database right’s historic roots, describes its main features, compares it to copyright, questions its legal nature especially in the light of international intellectual property agreements, and finally examines to what extent the goals of the Directive have been met.


Annotatie bij Hof van Justitie 6 oktober 2016 (Schrems / Data Protection Commissioner)

van Eijk, N.


Annotatie bij EHRM 21 oktober 2014 (Vural / Turkije)

Dommering, E.

nr. 336
Vrijheid van meningsuiting. Veroordeling tot ruim 13 jaar gevangenisstraf en ontneming kiesrecht wegens belediging nagedachtenis Atatürk door standbeelden met verf te besmeuren. Proportionaliteit. Schending art. 10 EVRM en art. 3 Eerste Protocol.


Annotatie bij EHRM 1 december 2015 (Cengiz e.a. / Turkije)

Dommering, E.

nr. 337
De vrijheid om inlichtingen of denkbeelden te ontvangen of te verstrekken. Blokkering toegang (video)website YouTube. Onvoldoende wetttelijke basis. Schending art. 10 EVRM.


Het verschil van mening, geschiedenis van een verkeerd begrepen idee

Dommering, E.

Vrijheid is een oud begrip dat staat voor het zich losmaken van groepen en individuen uit de macht van een ander. Die vrijheid werd gesymboliseerd door de zogenoemde vrijheidshoed, want in het Romeinse Rijk mocht een vrijgemaakte slaaf een hoofddeksel gaan dragen. In Europa krijgt vrijheid als eerste gestalte in de godsdienstvrijheid en het eigendomsrecht. Het geloof wordt losgemaakt van het gezag van de kerkelijke autoriteit. De eigendom is niet langer een privilege toegekend door een vorst, maar iets wat je verwerft door inbezitneming of door eigen inspanning. De vrijheid van denken en spreken bepaalt hoe wij over de samenleving en de natuur denken. Het publieke debat en het democratische besluit vervangen het door God gegeven politieke gezag. Het onderzoek naar de natuur komt in de plaats van een godsdienstig wereldbeeld. Deze vrijheden hebben de Europese democratie gemaakt tot wat zij nu is. Het verschil van mening geeft een ideeëngeschiedenis van deze vrijheden, waarbij de vrijheid van meningsuiting centraal staat. Het boek trekt de lijn door naar het heden en de rol van internet, dat alle kennis in de wereld toegankelijk maakt, maar onder zijn eigen toegankelijkheid lijkt te bezwijken. De burgers die hun vrijheden op internet uitoefenen, hebben er een elektronische politieman bij gekregen die permanent over hun schouder meekijkt.


Annotatie bij EHRM 22 april 2013 (zaak Animal Defenders International / Verenigd Koninkrijk)

Dommering, E.

Nationaal verbod van politieke reclame niet in strijd met artikel 10 EVRM, terugkomen op eerdere beslissing?


Auteursrechtdebat: De ontvlochten uitgeverij

Poort, J.

Gepubliceerd op IE-Forum.nl op 22 juli 2016, IEF 16134.


Flexible Copyright. Can EU Author's Right Accommodate Fair Use?

Hugenholtz, P.

In: Copyright Law in an Age of Limitations and Exceptions, R. Okediji (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2016, p. 242-258 (forthcoming).

Almost everyone agrees that modern copyright law needs to be flexible in order to accommodate rapid technological change and evolving media uses. In the United States fair use is the flexible instrument of choice. Author’s right systems in Europe are generally deemed to be less flexible and less tolerant to open-ended limitations and exceptions. But are they really?
This chapter makes the case that (1) author’s rights systems can be made as flexible as copyright systems, and (2) that the existing EU legal framework does not preclude the development of flexible norms at the national level.


Concise European Copyright Law (second edition)

Hugenholtz, P.

Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International, 2016, 699 pp.
ISBN 9789041128799.

See table of contents here.
See list of authors here.
A sample chapter on the EU Database Directive, by Prof. P.B. Hugenholtz, is available here.

The second edition of Concise European Copyright Law was published in Spring 2016. Concise European Copyright Law aims to offer the reader a rapid understanding of all the provisions of copyright law in force in Europe that have been enacted at the European and international levels. This volume takes the form of an article-by-article commentary on the relevant EU directives and international treaties in the field of copyright and neighbouring rights. Editors and authors are prominent specialists (academics and practitioners) in the field of international and European copyright law.


Answer to the EC Consultation on the 'panorama exception'

Benabou, V.

Bently, L.

Dinwoodie, G.

Dusollier, S.

Derclaye E.

Geiger, C.

Griffiths, J.

Hugenholtz, P.

Kretschmer, M.

Metzger, A.

Rognstad O.

Peukert, A.

Ricolfi, M.

Vivant, M.

Xalabarder, R.


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